Advantage: simple, much safer than samba & nfs, support non-English when mounted in windows.

See Also Links
SFTP: FTP over SSH
NFS
CIFS/SMB/Samba

SERVER

in linux, need ssh server

in win, need SFTP capable SSH server

For instance, OpenSSH-powershell for Windows. See here for detailed steps.
OBS 1: sshfs works, but ssh to win will get win-cmd UI
OBS 2: pub key login seems NOT working ???
WARN: the whole C: disk will be shared as root.

LINUX AS CLIENT

WARN: use absolute path (instead of relative path) format for both server and client ! (no error for relative path, but cannot mount)

sudo apt-get install sshfs && \
echo 'user_allow_other' > /etc/fuse.conf && \
sudo mkdir /mnt/share && \
sudo sshfs -o allow_other,reconnect,ServerAliveInterval=15 [email protected]:/ /mnt/share
# or, with key:
sudo sshfs -o allow_other,reconnect,ServerAliveInterval=15,IdentityFile=~/.ssh/id_rsa [email protected]:/ /mnt/share

OBS 1: option allow_other will permit others non-root to read and write files as root.
OBS 2: be careful of default_permissions option: this option make allow_other NOT useful, others non-root cannot access the folder.
Tip 1: for permanent mount, see digitalocean.
Tip 2: for error "Transport endpoint is not connected", run "umount -l /mnt/share", l means lazy clean.

WINDOWS 10 AS CLIENT

Install Dokan v1
Install Win-SSHFS v1.6 pre-release (no process shown, will create a shortcut on desktop)
Run desktop shutcut, fill ssh server login info and "save", then "mount".
Done.

Tip: Win-SSHFS will automatically ask for .net v4.6 if it is not yet installed.

OBS: win7 has limitations, dokan requires KB3033929.

REF

igikorn.com
to mount in linux, see DigitalOcean.com
to mount in win8, seehere (not tested)