See also:
For networking
For GPU in deep learning


To monitor CPU temperature lm-sensors (Linux Monitoring sensors):

sudo apt-get install -y lm-sensors && \
sudo sensors-detect && \
# sudo service kmod start # optional

Extra: using watch to auto-refresh:

watch -n 1 -d sensors # n: nr of seconds to refresh

sensors (gif from nixCraft)

To monitor HDD temperature:

sudo apt-get install hddtemp && \
hddtemp /dev/sd*

Ref: askubuntu


apt-get install -y sysstat
which includes:
sar -u 2 5: overall cpu usage, every 2sec, repeat 5 times.
mpstat -P ALL: individual processor performance.
iostat: HDD read/write.