Git In Case Of

2013 - 05 - 01


git config -l # ls all configs

Frequently Used

git help <command> 

git show            # show content of a commit/file-obj.
git show $id
git show object
git show $REV:$FILE
git show somebranch:from/the/root/myfile.txt
git show HEAD^^^:test/

git co  -- <file>   # discard modifications in workspace // co = Check Out
git co  .           # discard modifications for all (previously existing?) files in workspace

git add <file>      # 将工作文件修改提交到本地暂存区
git add .           # 将所有修改过的工作文件提交暂存区
git st/status       # workspace status

git rm <file>       # 从版本库中删除文件
git rm <file> --cached  # 从版本库中删除文件,但不删除文件

git reset <file>    # 从暂存区恢复到工作文件
git reset -- .      # 从暂存区恢复到工作文件
git reset --hard    # 恢复最近一次提交过的状态,即放弃上次提交后的所有本次修改
git reset --soft HEAD~1  # 撤消最后一次commit,所有的修改都保留, 用的最多 !!!
git ci <file>
git ci .
git ci -a           # 将git add, git rm和git ci等操作都合并在一起做
git ci -am "some comments"
git ci --amend      # 修改最后一次提交记录

git revert <$id>    # 恢复某次提交的状态,恢复动作本身也创建了一次提交对象
git revert HEAD     # 恢复最后一次提交的状态

git blame commit1~1 -Ln1,n2 -- prev/file # see sub-section below


git diff <file>     # 比较当前文件和暂存区文件差异
git diff
git diff <$id1> <$id2>   # 比较两次提交之间的差异
git diff <branch1>..<branch2> # 在两个分支之间比较 
git diff --staged   # 比较暂存区和版本库差异
git diff --cached   # 比较暂存区和版本库差异
git diff --stat     # 仅仅比较统计信息


git log
git log <file>      # 查看该文件每次提交记录
git log -p <file>   # 查看每次详细修改内容的diff
git log -p -2       # 查看最近两次详细修改内容的diff
git log --stat      # 查看提交统计信息`</pre>

Local Branch

take a look

git br -r           # 查看远程分支
git br <new_branch> # 创建新的分支
git br -v           # 查看各个分支最后提交信息
git br --merged     # 查看已经被合并到当前分支的分支
git br --no-merged  # 查看尚未被合并到当前分支的分支

change a branch

git co <branch>     # 切换到某个分支
git co -b <new_branch> # 创建新的分支,并且切换过去
git co -b <new_branch> <branch>  # 基于branch创建新的new_branch
git co $id          # 把某次历史提交记录checkout出来,但无分支信息,切换到其他分支会自动删除
git co $id -b <new_branch>  # 把某次历史提交记录checkout出来,创建成一个分支

delete a branch

git br -d <branch>  # 删除某个分支
git br -D <branch>  # 强制删除某个分支 (未被合并的分支被删除的时候需要强制) 

merge & rebase

git merge <branch>               # 将branch分支合并到当前分支
git merge origin/master --no-ff  # 不要Fast-Foward合并,这样可以生成merge提交

git pull --rebase
git rebase master <branch>       # 将master rebase到branch,相当于:
git co <branch> && git rebase master && git co master && git merge <branch> 

blame (track changes)

Use -L to control which lines to check.

Option 1: use blame whose layout looks like a hex editor, i.e. line by line

git blame -- /path/to/ # note: add a space after --
git blame -L 10,15 -- /path/to/
git blame -L 10,+5 -- /path/to/

Option 2: use -u in log, which differs codes of users as blocks similar to diff.

git log -u /path/to/
git log -u -L 10,15:/path/to/
git log --pretty=short -u -L 10,+5:/path/to/


Remote Branch

git pull                         # 抓取远程仓库所有分支更新并合并到本地
git pull --no-ff                 # 抓取远程仓库所有分支更新并合并到本地,不要快进合并
git fetch origin                 # 抓取远程仓库更新
git merge origin/master          # 将远程主分支合并到本地当前分支
git co --track origin/branch     # 跟踪某个远程分支创建相应的本地分支
git co -b <local_branch> origin/<remote_branch>  # 基于远程分支创建本地分支,功能同上

git push                         # push所有分支
git push origin master           # 将本地主分支推到远程主分支
git push -u origin master        # 将本地主分支推到远程(如无远程主分支则创建,用于初始化远程仓库)
git push origin <local_branch>   # 创建远程分支, origin是远程仓库名
git push origin <local_branch>:<remote_branch>  # 创建远程分支
git push origin :<remote_branch>  #先删除本地分支(git br -d <branch>),然后再push删除远程分支 

Get Remote Branch

Use git fetch to fetch all remote branches, then run:
git checkout -b <local-branch-name> origin/<remote-branch-name&gt
就可以将远程分支映射到本地命名为 的分支 (如果没有此分支则自动建立)。


Remote Repo

frequently used

git remote -v                    # 查看远程服务器地址和仓库名称
git remote show origin           # 查看远程服务器仓库状态
git remote add origin [email protected]:robbin/robbin_site.git         # 添加远程仓库地址
git remote set-url origin [email protected]:robbin/robbin_site.git # 设置远程仓库地址(用于修改远程仓库地址)
git remote rm <repository>       # 删除远程仓库

create a remote repo

git clone --bare robbin_site robbin_site.git  # 用带版本的项目创建纯版本仓库
scp -r my_project.git [email protected]:~      # 将纯仓库上传到服务器上

mkdir robbin_site.git && cd robbin_site.git && git --bare init # 在服务器创建纯仓库
git remote add origin [email protected]:robbin/robbin_site.git    # 设置远程仓库地址
git push -u origin master                                      # 客户端首次提交
git push -u origin develop  # 首次将本地develop分支提交到远程develop分支,并且track

git remote set-head origin master   # 设置远程仓库的HEAD指向master分支

Follow a Remote/Local Branch

git branch --set-upstream master origin/master
git branch --set-upstream develop origin/develop`</pre>

Patch (方便在多台机器上开发同步时用)

git diff > ../sync.patch         # 生成补丁
git apply ../sync.patch          # 打补丁
git apply --check ../sync.patch  # 测试补丁能否成功

Stash (暂存)

git stash                        # 暂存
git stash list                   # 列所有stash
git stash apply                  # 恢复暂存的内容
git stash drop                   # 删除暂存区`</pre>

Force Overwrite a Local Branch

git fetch --all
git reset --hard origin/master

git fetch downloads the latest from remote without trying to merge or rebase anything. Then thegit reset resets the master branch to what you just fetched.

Force Delete All History

Suppose to delete the history of master (current branch).

git checkout --orphan temp_branch
git add -A
git commit -am "the first commit"
git branch -D master
git branch -m master
git push -f origin master


Ignore File Permission (File Mode) Changes

git config --global core.fileMode false

Ignore Sensitive/Secret Lines

add a global filter 'sensitiveLineIgnoreFilter'

git config --global filter.sensitiveLineIgnoreFilter.clean "sed '/#gitignore$/'d"  # thus, any line ended with '#gitignore' will be ignored, but you will see it when doing diff.
git config --global filter.gitignore.smudge cat # do nothing when pulling file from repo
# i did in windows git shell, didn't try cmd

apply the global filter to a git project

vim .gitattributes
<project root>/.gitattributes will be committed into repo
<project root>/.git/info/attributes won't be.
add the filter to .gitattributes: filter=sensitiveLineIgnoreFilter

add '#gitignore' to the end of sensitive lines

If '#gitignore' is added BEFORE 1st commit, then after a commit, the line will disappear.
/* Otherwise, the line will remain, but be ignored (? not tested) */


GUI Software / GUI Clients


github desktop

  • suggested for new git users, easy but too simple


  • not suggested
  • good GUI but low speed and the few existing functions are just soso compared to git-extension
  • require MS .Net installation which leads to OS restart

For full list, see here

Teamwork Examples


  • chapter 5. Distributed Git
  • ch5.1 Distributed Workflows
  • ch5.2 Contributing to a Project


registry (docker images hub)

Go to menu: /settings/repository > "Deploy Tokens".
When "create", Gitlab will create a "Your New Deploy Token" which contains a pair of "username as a login" and "token as a password".
Tip 1: it is shown only once.
Tip 2: this can be used in k8s/kube to pull images.


main ref
ref1 the book
ref2 cn
other verson control softwares inc. SVN Subversion, Git, Mercurial, Bazaar 2014:





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